PEOPLE HAVE USED some form of paste to help keep their teeth clean since at least 3000 BC in ancient Egypt. Modern toothpaste first appeared in the 1700s and was usually homemade. A dentist first added soap to dental paste in 1824, and John Harris added chalk in the 1850s. 20 years later, Colgate began mass-producing toothpaste in jars.
A Little More Toothpaste History
In 1920, Dr. Washington Sheffield realized it was pretty unsanitary for a whole family to dip their toothbrushes into the same jar over and over, so he developed the collapsible toothpaste tube, inspired by artists’ paint tubes. After WWII, further improvements included emulsifying agents to replace soap, introducing fluoride, adding stripes, and adding whitening agents. Let’s take a closer look at the common ingredients in modern toothpaste.
Active Ingredient: Fluoride
The toothpaste ingredient we spend most of our time talking about is fluoride since it’s the active ingredient. It helps remineralize tooth enamel and protects against tooth decay. Toothpaste must contain it to receive the American Dental Association’s Seal of Acceptance.
Flavoring and Sweeteners
Flavors are the ingredients that make toothpaste taste good. They include mint and sugar-free sweeteners like saccharin or sorbitol. The ADA won’t give its Seal of Acceptance to any toothpaste containing sugar.
Abrasives for Scrubbing
Abrasive ingredients (like calcium carbonate, hydrated aluminum oxides, and dehydrated silica gels) help to scrub away surface stains and food debris. Abrasive ingredients are effective with soft-bristled brushes and gentle brushing, so make sure not to brush too hard because overbrushing can cause significant damage to teeth and gum tissue.
Detergents for Foaming
Detergents like sodium lauryl sulfate make the toothpaste foam while brushing so that the ingredients can effectively reach every tooth. (This one is why you rarely see actors brushing with real toothpaste on TV! It would foam and get too messy for their scenes.)
Humectants for Texture
Finally, humectants (including glycol, glycerol, and sorbitol) trap water inside toothpaste so that it doesn’t become crumbly and dry, and so that it can come out of the tube onto your toothbrush in a nice, smooth piece.
Numbing and Cooling Ingredients for Sensitivity
Toothpaste for sensitive teeth usually includes ingredients like stannous fluoride or potassium nitrate. These help with cleaning while also preventing teeth from having that jarring reaction to temperature changes and other sensitivity triggers. This kind of toothpaste is no substitute for a trip to our office if you suspect a more serious problem with a tooth, however.
What about the actual toothpaste mixing process?
Let’s Find the Right Toothpaste!
If you aren’t sure where to start looking for an effective toothpaste while you’re completing your orthodontic treatment, we’re happy to offer suggestions. We look forward to seeing your smile the next time you come in for an adjustment.